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  1. From outer space to paradise? : Remapping Hawai'i in "Lilo and Stitch"

    Ever since the European discovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Captain James Cook in 1778, this island state has been shamelessly exploited economically and reimagined for a wide, mainly white, audience in the media. The island state continues to... mehr

     

    Ever since the European discovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Captain James Cook in 1778, this island state has been shamelessly exploited economically and reimagined for a wide, mainly white, audience in the media. The island state continues to occupy a unique place in public consciousness, evoking escapist fantasies of dazzling long, sandy beaches, spectacular sunsets, swaying palm trees, and beautiful hula dancers as well as skilled surfers enjoying perfect waves. Numerous novels, TV series, and movies have helped to foster this positive image, at the same time suppressing the dark side of colonial Hawaiian history in favor of a more convenient paradise image. Especially the American movie industry with films such as "Waikiki Wedding" (1937), "Blue Hawaii" (1961), "Paradise Hawaiian Style" (1966) or more recently "50 First Dates" (2004) and "Forgetting Sarah Marshall" (2008) has helped to create Hawai'i as a "fantasy-scape" for a larger audience. The majority of movies set on the island state imagine this place as a tropic paradise resort, mainly for wealthy white Americans, thus almost completely erasing the native population from the screen.

    Disney's animated movie "Lilo and Stitch" (2002) can be read along the lines of those preceding movies representing the islands solely as an ideal holiday destination and multicultural paradise as well. Thus, it seems not surprising that in 2002 Disney signed a $3.9 million marketing contract with the Hawaiian Visitors and Conventions Bureau (HVCB), which markets the islands under the control of the Hawai'i Tourism Authority, to promote Hawai'i as a family destination. However, on closer scrutiny, the movie indeed depicts trouble in paradise as it does not only depict Hawai'i as a heterotopic space where intergalactic immigration is possible but – on a more subtle level – criticizes American colonial practices and the forced annexation of the former independent kingdom, thereby rendering the island state still a highly contested space.

     

    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Schlagworte: Hawaii <Motiv>; Paradies <Motiv>; Heterotopie
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  2. Fulfilling desires : the spatial problems of Disney princesses and why their husbands-to-be are so much better off

    In 2013 Disney released its 53rd animated movie "Frozen". (Very) loosely based on Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale "The Snow Queen", it tells the story of two sisters, one of which, Elsa, has the power to manipulate ice. Instead of making her the... mehr

     

    In 2013 Disney released its 53rd animated movie "Frozen". (Very) loosely based on Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale "The Snow Queen", it tells the story of two sisters, one of which, Elsa, has the power to manipulate ice. Instead of making her the real villain of the film, Disney opted for a misunderstood and suppressed young woman, who flees her castle, which she deems a prison, when her subjects find out about her powers. Her younger sister Anna vows to bring her back and to show everyone that her "sister's not a monster. [i]t was an accident. [...] So [Anna] needs to go after her." "Frozen" is the story of the re-bonding of two sisters and Elsa even saves her kid sister eventually by showing Anna that she truly loves her and not some prince. According to Stephen Holden, it is supposed to be a story that "shakes up the hyper-romantic "princess" formula that has stood Disney in good stead for decades and that has grown stale." Holden's review reverberates a general agreement that "Frozen" is finally a movie that can be truly enjoyed by both sexes and that does not promote the idea that love triumphs over anything else.

     

    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Schlagworte: Prinzessin <Motiv>; Walt Disney Company
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  3. Boxes within boxes and a useless map : spatial (and temporal) phenomena in the "Kingkiller Chronicles"

    At first glance, "The Name of the Wind" and "The Wise Man's Fear", volumes I and II of Patrick Rothfuss' as yet incomplete trilogy "Kingkiller Chronicles", appear to fulfill many conventions of heroic fantasy. The books are set in a world called the... mehr

     

    At first glance, "The Name of the Wind" and "The Wise Man's Fear", volumes I and II of Patrick Rothfuss' as yet incomplete trilogy "Kingkiller Chronicles", appear to fulfill many conventions of heroic fantasy. The books are set in a world called the Four Corners (of civilization), consisting mostly of feudal states, a mostly rural and agrarian landscape. This world has a distinct but slightly vague "old-timey" atmosphere – there is little technology, transport is mainly by horse-power, there seem to be no fire-arms and no media. However, a form of postal service exists, science and medicine are taught at university and women have access to university education, so it is hard to place this fictional universe within a "real-life" historical epoch.

     

    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Schlagworte: Phantastische Literatur; Erzähltheorie
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  4. "I was hemmed in by people not in my city" : power, space and identity in China Miéville's "The City and the City"

    From New Corbuzon to UnLondon, China Miéville's works show a preoccupation with the city which transcends the function of setting and serves as a subtext to the plot. As one of the most prominent representatives of weird fiction Miéville constructs... mehr

     

    From New Corbuzon to UnLondon, China Miéville's works show a preoccupation with the city which transcends the function of setting and serves as a subtext to the plot. As one of the most prominent representatives of weird fiction Miéville constructs cityscapes that fascinate the reader with their eccentricity and strangeness, but also with their social, historical and architectural complexity. In "Perdido Street Station" the eponymous landmark in New Corbuzon is essential for the denouement of the plot rather than merely a backdrop. The city is a character in its own right. This is also and especially true for Miéville's 2009 novel "The City and the City". Here, the city seems at first normal, then alien and in conclusion utterly quotidian. The way the literary space and place is built permeates everything in the novel: the way the characters act, the crime plot, the philosophy and mood. At the core, "The City and the City" captures the everyday creation and maintenance of social space and illustrates the human capacity to deal with conflicting, layered realities of communal life and the human condition.

    The "City and the City" is set in the twin city states of Besźel and Ul Qoma that occupy much of the same geographical space, but are perceived as two very different cities. The borders between the cities are invisible and intangible, but reinforced by citizens by "unseeing" and "unsensing" the other one. Meaning: someone in Besźel must ignore everything Ul Qoman even what is right next to them. Some parts of the cityscape are totally in one city but quite a few are "cross-hatched", meaning in either city depending on what is unseen. Unsight is an acquired habit, but one that is performed unconsciously. To unsee the other city is an integral part of being a citizen and important in the socialiation of children. Acknowledging the other city even accidentally is a serious crime called breaching punished by an all-seeing, all-powerful agency named Breach. Why and how the state of separation between the cities came to pass is unknown: an event ambiguously called "cleavage" split or united the cities.

    "The City and the City" won several awards for fantasy writing, although it is fantastic only in one aspect and – plotwise – the novel is crime fiction: a police procedural with noir and hard-boiled touches – genres that lay claim on gritty realism. It is precisely this uncertainty of genre that allows a subversive reading of the text and contributes to the social criticism therein. In the novel Inspector Tyador Borlú from Besźel investigates the murder of foreign student Mahalia Greary across the cities and uncovers a conspiracy to exploit the cities' cultural heritage for profit.

     

    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Schlagworte: Stadt <Motiv>; Miéville, China
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  5. Los Angeles 2019 : die postmoderne Stadt als sozialkritischer Spiegel in Ridley Scott's "Blade Runner2 (USA 1982)

    Ridley Scott's "Blade Runner" ist eine lose Adaption von Philip K. Dicks Roman "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?". Der Science-Fiction-Film spielt in der Stadt Los Angeles im Jahr 2019, obwohl in der Buchvorlage San Francisco Ort des Geschehens... mehr

     

    Ridley Scott's "Blade Runner" ist eine lose Adaption von Philip K. Dicks Roman "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?". Der Science-Fiction-Film spielt in der Stadt Los Angeles im Jahr 2019, obwohl in der Buchvorlage San Francisco Ort des Geschehens ist. Bereits seine einleitenden Szenen geben einen Vorgeschmack auf den folgenden Streifen und die Rolle der Metropole darin. In diesen wird eine düstere urbane Landschaft gezeigt, die von flackernden Schornsteinen und dem künstlichen Licht zahlreicher Fenster nur marginal erleuchtet wird. Der so entstehende, bedrohliche Eindruck wird durch die Klänge des Vangelis-Soundtracks, die stets patrouillierenden Polizeiflieger und die dominierenden Pyramiden der Tyrell Corporation zusätzlich unterstrichen. Es verwundert deshalb wenig, dass dieses Set von der Filmcrew "Hades" genannt wurde.

    Die bedrückende Atmosphäre der Startsequenz wird in den engen Häuserschluchten der Stadt weiter betont. Dort drängen sich Menschen unterschiedlichster Herkunft auf engstem Raum. Dies lässt auf eine starke Überbevölkerung schließsen, obwohl die oberen Gesellschaftsschichten sich größtenteils von der Erde zurückgezogen haben.

    In Außerweltkolonien lassen sie Replikanten für sich arbeiten. Diese Androide werden von der Tyrell Corporation hergestellt. Weil die neuesten Modelle ihren Machern körperlich und intellektuell überlegen sind, wird ihnen zum Schutz der Menschheit eine maximale Lebensdauer von vier Jahren einprogrammiert. Zudem ist es Replikanten verboten, auf die Erde zurückzukehren. Diejenigen, die es trotzdem tun, werden von speziellen Kopfgeldjägern, sogenannten Blade Runnern, gejagt und "in den Ruhestand versetzt", also getötet. Im Film spielt Harrison Ford einen solchen Detektiven. Als Rick Deckard jagt er eine Gruppe von Replikanten, welche auf die Erde gekommen ist, um mehr Leben von ihrem Schöpfer einzufordern.

    Im Folgenden wird untersucht, wie die Stadt Los Angeles im Film dargestellt wird. Dabei wird auch abgeklärt, warum die jeweiligen Darstellungsformen von den Filmschaffenden gewählt wurden und die Handlung des Films ausgerechnet nach Los Angeles verlegt worden ist. Zudem werden ausserdiegetische Entwicklungen, welche durch den Film und die darin dominierenden urbanen Bilder angesprochen und kritisiert werden, erörtert. Hierfür wird auch auf mögliche Vorbilder eingegangen, die auf die Gestaltung der Stadt in Ridley Scotts "Blade Runner" eingewirkt haben.

    Dieser Arbeit liegt der im Jahr 2007 veröffentlichte "Final Cut" des Films zu Grunde. Dieser ist die bislang letzte Fassung von "Blade Runner" und somit wohl auch diejenige, welche den persönlichen Vorstellungen des Regisseurs am meisten entspricht. Wenn es für diese Untersuchung relevant ist, wird aber dennoch auf frühere Versionen verwiesen.

     

    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Deutsch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Schlagworte: Blade runner; Stadt <Motiv>
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen