Displaying results 6 to 10 of 21.

  1. Is storytelling a biological adaptation? : Preliminary thoughts on how to pose that question
    Published: 10.09.2015

    Verbal storytelling – in a sense broad enough to include all forms from casual conversation across oral folklore to written literature – seems to be a universal human activity and has thus been considered an evolutionary adaptation several times in... more

     

    Verbal storytelling – in a sense broad enough to include all forms from casual conversation across oral folklore to written literature – seems to be a universal human activity and has thus been considered an evolutionary adaptation several times in the past few years. The fact that a particular trait is a species-wide universal, however, does not automatically make it an adaptation; it could also be a contingent universal, that is, a cultural behavior which notably relies on biological substrates and therefore emerges in similar fashions in all human cultures, times, and milieus. Yet verbal storytelling is not only universal but also distinct to our species. The uniqueness of a trait can indeed be indicative of a biological adaptation1 in that we have reason to assume that this trait emerged newly in the given animal lineage and thus might owe its existence to the process of natural selection. However, since verbal storytelling completely depends on language, that is, another uniquely human faculty, the uniqueness of storytelling is hardly surprising and cannot serve as a conclusive argument for considering storytelling itself to be a specifically selected trait. Storytelling could simply be a particular use of language (though we shall see below that the relationship between language and narration is a little more complicated). A third possible indication of a biological adaptation, however, is the fact that storytelling seems to be a notably self-rewarding activity. It occurs on a much larger scale than would seem justified by rational choice or other reasons. As fitness-enhancing behaviors should, as a rule, be intrinsically motivated under certain conditions, the unusually high frequency of storytelling might indeed be revealing of an innate preference for this behavior.

     

    Content notes: free
    Source: CompaRe
    Language: English
    Media type: Part of a book
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-11-026859-1
    DDC Categories: 800
    Rights: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  2. "Dein Name, Königin, unter dieser Schrift" : Friedrich Schillers "Maria Stuart" in mediologischer Sicht
    Published: 23.09.2015

    "Du bist nur Bild" – diese Worte setzen das Signal für eine mediologische Lektüre nicht nur des Dramas, dem sie entnommen sind – Goethes Egmont –, sondern nicht minder für eine solche von Friedrich Schillers Maria Stuart, jenem "Trauerspiel", das am... more

     

    "Du bist nur Bild" – diese Worte setzen das Signal für eine mediologische Lektüre nicht nur des Dramas, dem sie entnommen sind – Goethes Egmont –, sondern nicht minder für eine solche von Friedrich Schillers Maria Stuart, jenem "Trauerspiel", das am 14. Juni 1800 am Weimarer Hoftheater uraufgeführt wird und zur Ostermesse 1801 beim Tübinger Verleger Cotta in einer Auflage von 4000 Exemplaren im Druck erscheint.

    Wenn nämlich Marin im fünft en Aufzug verkündet, "auf meinem Weg zum Himmel" zu sein, dann ist mit dieser Wendung auf einer Metaebene der epistemische Bruch aufgerufen, den Michel Foucault in Die Ordnung der Dinge als den Übergang von der frühneuzeitlichen Lehre von den Ähnlichkeiten zur klassischen Wissensformation rekonstruiert und dessen Durchsetzung Friedrich Schiller gemeinsam mit Johann Wolfgang Goethe mittels ihrer Weimarer Theaterreform betreibt. Einer mediologischen Lektüre stellen sich die politischen Konsequenzen der Entweltlichung der Wahrheit, durch die Foucault die klassische Episteme bestimmt sieht, als das zentrale Thema von Schillers "Maria Stuart" dar.

     

    Content notes: free
    Source: CompaRe
    Language: German
    Media type: Article
    Format: Online
    DDC Categories: 830
    Rights: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  3. Vuoti di memoria : quattro voci sull'oblio
    Published: 18.08.2015

    Queste note su memoria e oblio prendono le mosse da due fenomeni noti, pur nella loro enigmaticità, e apparentemente opposti come il déjà-vu e il jamais-vu. Accade qualcosa e si ha l'impressione che si stia ripetendo un evento già vissuto, oppure ci... more

     

    Queste note su memoria e oblio prendono le mosse da due fenomeni noti, pur nella loro enigmaticità, e apparentemente opposti come il déjà-vu e il jamais-vu. Accade qualcosa e si ha l'impressione che si stia ripetendo un evento già vissuto, oppure ci si trova in un luogo praticato da anni e, a un certo punto, letteralmente, non lo si riconosce più, percependolo come nuovo ed estraneo. Si tratta di sentimenti che, pur facendo parte dell'esperienza più comune, conservano un alone di opacità. Sia nella "familiarità estranea" sia nella "estraneità familiare" si ha a che fare con uno spaesamento, una vertigine emotiva che sulle prime fa retroagire la nostra comprensione. In entrambi i casi lo stupore si accompagna all'inquietudine: la portata dirompente del nuovo strappa fuori dal riparo delle proprie certezze, dall'impalcatura delle proprie conoscenze. Sono i momenti di interferenza di livelli temporali diversi, in cui alla finitudine dell'evento vissuto si giustappone l'illimitata dimensione del ricordo. La simultaneità delle sfere contrapposte, il loro cortocircuitare e sovrapporsi, dà luogo a uno spaesamento, che talvolta assume un carattere demonico, perturbante (unheimlich), per dirla con Freud. Il senso dell'Unheimlichkeit fa tutt'uno con il sentimento di angoscia o di terrore che si genera nella conversione dell'opposto, quando il noto diventa fonte di terrore, quando il familiare si fa estraneo, o anche quando l'estraneo appare come familiare. Il ritorno del rimosso, sotto forma di paure o desideri inconfessabili, rinvia ai conflitti dell'infanzia e alle fase arcaiche della vita umana. In questo senso rappresenta una "promessa" che il presente non ha saputo esaudire, e che sopravvive in tutta la sua carica sovversiva.

     

    Content notes: free
    Source: CompaRe
    Language: Italian
    Media type: Part of a book
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-88-575-1081-1
    DDC Categories: 830
    Rights: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  4. One Adam and nine Eves in Donald Siegel's "The Beguiled" and Giovanni Boccaccio's 3:1 of "The Decameron"
    Published: 17.03.2015

    Donald Siegel's 1971 film entitled "The Beguiled" is compared to Tale 1 of Day 3 from Giovanni Boccaccio’s "The Decameron". Both stories are about a man who arrives in a garden setting and finds nine sexually starved women. In Boccaccio's tale, a... more

     

    Donald Siegel's 1971 film entitled "The Beguiled" is compared to Tale 1 of Day 3 from Giovanni Boccaccio’s "The Decameron". Both stories are about a man who arrives in a garden setting and finds nine sexually starved women. In Boccaccio's tale, a male gardener finds himself in a convent occupied by nine nuns with whom he proceeds to have sexual relations to everyone's satisfaction. Siegel's film is about a wounded soldier taken in at a girls' finishing school whose nine female residents become the objects of the hero's amorous attention. While Boccaccio adopts a philogynist tone with respect to the material, "The Beguiled" appears to be a virulently misogynist film projecting its female characters as jealous demons who end up mutilating and then killing their male suitor. Findings from evolutionary psychology pertaining to female jealousy and reproductive strategies are used to consider the respective attitudes toward women in the medieval tale and the twentieth-century film. Conclusions are drawn about the difficulty of placing either of the stories within a clear-cut philogynist or misogynist category.

     

    Content notes: free
    Source: CompaRe
    Language: English
    Media type: Article
    Format: Online
    DDC Categories: 800
    Rights: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  5. From collective creativity to authorial primacy : Gottsched's reformation of the German theatre from a mediological point of view
    Published: 07.04.2015

    Theatre constitutes a form of collective creativity. This idea is not as self-evident as one might expect. To some extent the collective Character of this art form had to be rediscovered over the course of the twentieth century, as theatre... more

     

    Theatre constitutes a form of collective creativity. This idea is not as self-evident as one might expect. To some extent the collective Character of this art form had to be rediscovered over the course of the twentieth century, as theatre emancipated itself from the primacy of the literary text and thus from the primacy of the author. In fact, the collective character of this art form was fully brought into view again only with the debates about a post-dramatic theatre of the last few decades. In this essay I will tum back to the point in cultural history when literature started to dominate theatre and when the supremacy accorded the author began to annul theatre's collective character. This paradigmatic shift in the evolution of theatre occurred during the eighteenth century, and it is represented primarily by Johann Christoph Gottsched. In the following I will investigate Gottsched's efforts to reform the theatre of his age from a mediological point of view.

     

    Content notes: free
    Source: CompaRe
    Language: English
    Media type: Part of a book
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-90-420-3273-6
    DDC Categories: 830
    Rights: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen