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  1. The idea of co-evolution : towards a new evolutionary holism

    Th¬e main principle of holism – "the whole is more than the sum of its parts" – can be traced back to ancient philosophical studies. Although the term itself was coined by Jan Christiaan Smuts in 1926, the earliest formulations can already be found... mehr

     

    Th¬e main principle of holism – "the whole is more than the sum of its parts" – can be traced back to ancient philosophical studies. Although the term itself was coined by Jan Christiaan Smuts in 1926, the earliest formulations can already be found in Taoism, in the philosophy of Lao Tzu, as well as in Aristotle's 'Metaphysics'. However, a complete and profound sense of the principle has only been revealed in such theories as Gestalt psychology (Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer and others), the general systems theory (Ludwig von Bertalanffy), and the theory of complexity (synergetics) as formulated by the Moscow school of synergetics (Sergey Pavlovich Kurdyumov), to name just a few. ¬inking in this direction, from the whole to the parts (subsystems), is quite unusual for classical science which, in its course of analysis, usually moves from distinct parts to the whole. In synergetics, according to Hermann Haken, order parameters determine how parts (subsystems) of complex systems behave. A select few order parameters, as Haken says, encompass the complex behavior of diverse parts and, therefore, lead to enormously reducing the complexity in a description of a given system.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-7705-5896-4
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: Zentrum für Literatur- und Kulturforschung
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen