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  1. Historical Semantics and the Iconography of Death in Reinhart Koselleck

    Koselleck has repeatedly rejected the existence of a collective memory. All memory derives from individual experiences which are not interchangeable. Any person has the right to his own memories, without which he could not live and which cannot be... mehr

     

    Koselleck has repeatedly rejected the existence of a collective memory. All memory derives from individual experiences which are not interchangeable. Any person has the right to his own memories, without which he could not live and which cannot be collectivized. Only the conditions under which they are realized and recollected may be referred to as supra-individual. For this reason it is advisable to distinguish between the primary experiences of those who have lived them as a first person and who bind them to their own memories, and the secondary experiences after the fact of those who were not present in the situation which gave rise to the immediate experience. This distinction also applies to memorials. The messages of monuments are open to a double exegesis: they evoke the unmistakable occasions that have led to death. Like primary experiences they are not interchangeable. But, even so, artistic responses to incomparable occasions repeat themselves. There is only a limited repertoire of aesthetic solutions for fixating violent death – which individually is always unique – in the memory.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: Leibniz-Zentrum für Literatur- und Kulturforschung (ZfL)
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  2. Emergence in evolution and the causal role of synergy

    If reductionism and a search for deterministic, predictive 'laws' of nature represented the dominant research strategy – and world view – of the scientific community during the 20th century, 'emergence' has become a major theme, if not the dominant... mehr

     

    If reductionism and a search for deterministic, predictive 'laws' of nature represented the dominant research strategy – and world view – of the scientific community during the 20th century, 'emergence' has become a major theme, if not the dominant approach in the 21st century, reflecting a major shift of focus toward the study of complexity and complex systems. However, this important 'climate change' in the scientific enterprise has been accompanied by much confusion and debate about what exactly emergence is. How do you know it when you see it? Or don't see it? What are its defining properties? Is it possible to predict emergence? And is there more to emergence than meets the eye? Beyond these meta-theoretical issues, there is a deep question that is often skirted, or even ignored. How do we explain emergence? Why does emergence emerge? Here, I will briefly recount the history of this important concept and will address some of the many questions that surround it. I will also consider the distinction between reductionist and holistic approaches to the subject, as well as the distinction between epistemological and ontological emergence (that is, the ability to deduce or predict emergence versus the concrete reality of an emergent phenomenon). I will argue that living systems are irreducibly emergent in both senses and that biological evolution has quintessentially been a creative emergent process that is fully consistent with modern (Darwinian) evolutionary theory. Furthermore, as I will explain, novel 'synergies' of various kinds have been responsible for the 'progressive' evolution of more complex living systems over time. e selective advantages associated with emergent, synergistic effects have played a major causal role in the evolutionary process.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-7705-5896-4
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: Leibniz-Zentrum für Literatur- und Kulturforschung (ZfL)
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  3. A synergetic approach to the dynamics of financial markets

    'Synergetics', a fascinating interdisciplinary science initially proposed by Hermann Haken in the late 1960s, is a framework for understanding the interaction effects of very large complex systems, with an emphasis on explaining how self-organized... mehr

     

    'Synergetics', a fascinating interdisciplinary science initially proposed by Hermann Haken in the late 1960s, is a framework for understanding the interaction effects of very large complex systems, with an emphasis on explaining how self-organized macroscopic phenomena can emerge as a result of these underlying interactions. An especially exciting aspect is that entirely new and distinct properties of the system can emerge somewhat spontaneously. e approach has seen great success in a host of fields ranging from physics and chemistry to brain science and economics.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-7705-5896-4
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: Leibniz-Zentrum für Literatur- und Kulturforschung (ZfL)
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  4. The idea of co-evolution : towards a new evolutionary holism

    Th¬e main principle of holism – "the whole is more than the sum of its parts" – can be traced back to ancient philosophical studies. Although the term itself was coined by Jan Christiaan Smuts in 1926, the earliest formulations can already be found... mehr

     

    Th¬e main principle of holism – "the whole is more than the sum of its parts" – can be traced back to ancient philosophical studies. Although the term itself was coined by Jan Christiaan Smuts in 1926, the earliest formulations can already be found in Taoism, in the philosophy of Lao Tzu, as well as in Aristotle's 'Metaphysics'. However, a complete and profound sense of the principle has only been revealed in such theories as Gestalt psychology (Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer and others), the general systems theory (Ludwig von Bertalanffy), and the theory of complexity (synergetics) as formulated by the Moscow school of synergetics (Sergey Pavlovich Kurdyumov), to name just a few. ¬inking in this direction, from the whole to the parts (subsystems), is quite unusual for classical science which, in its course of analysis, usually moves from distinct parts to the whole. In synergetics, according to Hermann Haken, order parameters determine how parts (subsystems) of complex systems behave. A select few order parameters, as Haken says, encompass the complex behavior of diverse parts and, therefore, lead to enormously reducing the complexity in a description of a given system.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-7705-5896-4
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: Leibniz-Zentrum für Literatur- und Kulturforschung (ZfL)
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  5. The concept of 'classic' as an international marker of European art music between the 18th and the 19th century

    This paper deals with the terms 'classic' and 'classical' in European art music. It assumes an historical-lexicological perspective and refers to German, Italian, English and French literary sources in the music field. mehr

     

    This paper deals with the terms 'classic' and 'classical' in European art music. It assumes an historical-lexicological perspective and refers to German, Italian, English and French literary sources in the music field.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Sammlung: Leibniz-Zentrum für Literatur- und Kulturforschung (ZfL)
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen