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  1. Objects of "empathy" : characters (and other such things) as psycho-poetic effects
    Erschienen: 26.03.2013

    In folk theories of art reception, readers and cinema audiences are said to experience fictional worlds vicariously 'through' characters, i.e. they 'identify' themselves with them, they partake in their experiences 'empathetically'. In the first... mehr

     

    In folk theories of art reception, readers and cinema audiences are said to experience fictional worlds vicariously 'through' characters, i.e. they 'identify' themselves with them, they partake in their experiences 'empathetically'. In the first section of my essay, I will argue that it is not character but focalization (point of view) which, on a fundamental level, guides our fictional experience, and I will exemplify several ways that characters (or similar ideas) can then in addition come into play. In the next two sections, I will discuss possible cognitive correlates of both the textual device of focalization and textual clues indicating ›persons‹. The aim is to show that what I call ›psycho-poetic effects‹ (that is, the mental representation of anthropomorphic instances) are best described as byproducts of various cognitive programs involved in the reception of narrative fiction. 'Empathy', as it is understood in the above mentioned folk theory of art reception, can then be analysed into individual algorithms of social cognition. And it can be differentiated, as is done in the last section, from other phenomena often confused with it, like emotional experience proper and emotional contagion. Also, I refer to the idea that mirror neurons provide the means to empathize with others, literary characters included. My general proposition is to revise and refine those concepts with the help of evolutionary theory and, thus, to hypothesize as cognitive correlates for textual features only programs specific enough to be correlated with a specific adaptive function which they may have performed in the process of human evolution.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Teil eines Buches (Kapitel)
    Format: Online
    ISBN: 978-3-11-023241-7
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800); Literaturtheorie (801)
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  2. Transnational geography and identity through translation and distribution in Germany, Spain and Latin America

    During the 1930s through the 1940s and into the 1950s, Spanish and German presentations in opposition to ardent nationalism share strikingly common aesthetic and ideological strategies supporting claims to a transnational, international space.... mehr

     

    During the 1930s through the 1940s and into the 1950s, Spanish and German presentations in opposition to ardent nationalism share strikingly common aesthetic and ideological strategies supporting claims to a transnational, international space. Specific examples of common geography, identity and language in German and Spanish presentations (theater, short stories, reports, essays, speeches and poetry) in Spain and Latin America by German (Regler, Renn, Uhse), Spanish (J. Bergamin, R. Alberti, M. Aub) and Latin American (D. Rivera, P. Neruda, C. Vallejo) intellectuals, artists and activists during the 1930s through the 1950s will be explored. For example, German-speaking audiences and artists in Spain and Mexico shared a common lived and aesthetic space as Spanish-speaking audiences and artists. Further, many German presentations were translated into Spanish and visa versa. Here, presentations in “Das Wort” and “El Mono Azul” in Spain as well as “Freies Deutschland/Alemania libre” in Mexico will be referenced in developing a sense of re-definition of the concept of ‘foreign’ and ‘commonness’ beyond simply nationality (tradition, history and geography) and language. The impetus for an alternative, international and even revolutionary ‘space’ (as defined by Henri Lefebvre in The Production of Space) was produced in and through common Spanish and German strategies and realizations in their presentations. This Spanish-German example from the early/mid-part of the 20th century is a significant contribution to contemporary interdisciplinary discussions in the 21st century.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Lizenz: Veröffentlichungsvertrag für Publikationen
  3. The development of translation theories in Europe
    Erschienen: 30.12.2012

    Este artigo trata do desenvolvimento dos estudos da tradução na Europa, no siculo XX. O maior enfoque está na mudança da perspeciiva de pesquisa, da comparação entre línguas para a confrontação de textos e da focalização datradução como atividade... mehr

     

    Este artigo trata do desenvolvimento dos estudos da tradução na Europa, no siculo XX. O maior enfoque está na mudança da perspeciiva de pesquisa, da comparação entre línguas para a confrontação de textos e da focalização datradução como atividade pragmática para a investigação do pensamento do tradutor (perspectiva cognitiva). Paralelamente à discussão dos conceitos teóricos, comenta-se também o desenvolvimento institucional dos estudos da tradução. Der vorliegende Aufsatz behandelt die Entwicklung der europäischen Übersetzungswissenschaft im 20. Jahrhundert. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf dem Wandel der Forschungsperspektive vom Vergleich einzelner Sprachen hin zur Gegenüberstellung von Texten und von der Betonung des Handlungscharakters der Übersetzung hin zur Untersuchung des übersetzerischen Denkens (kognitive Perspektive). Parallel zur Diskussion theoretischer Konzepte, ist auch die institutionelle Entwicklung der Übersetzungswissenschaft Gegenstand der Untersuchung.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Lizenz: Creative Commons - Namensnennung-Nicht kommerziell 3.0
  4. Walter Benjamin: between academic fashion and the avant-garde
    Erschienen: 31.12.2012

    In the present context of the triumph of capitalism over real socialism, this article points out that, despite their ideological differences, both systems are bound to the same conception of history-as-progress. In contrast, it recalls Walter... mehr

     

    In the present context of the triumph of capitalism over real socialism, this article points out that, despite their ideological differences, both systems are bound to the same conception of history-as-progress. In contrast, it recalls Walter Benjamin's philosophy of history, marked by the critique of progress in the name of a revolutionary time, which interrupts history's chronological continuum. Benjamin's perspective is used to study the conflict of temporalities among the Soviet artists in the two decades after the October Revolution: on the one hand, the anarchic, autonomous and critical time of interruption – which is the time of avant-gade –, on the other hand, the synchronization with the ideas of a progressive time as ordered by the Communist Patty; this is the time of vanguard, whose capitalist Counterpart is fashion. Nestes tempos de triunfo do capitalismo sobre o socialismo real, o presente artigo mostra que, apesar de suas diferences ideológicas, ambos os sistemas baseiamse numa concepcão da história como progresso. Contrastivamente, é lembrada a filosofia da história de Walter Benjamin, marcada pela crítica do progresso e a concepção de um tempo revolucionário, que interrompe o continuum histórico. A luz da teoria benjaminiana é estudado o conflito de concepções de tempo entre os artistas soviéticos das duas décadas posteriores à Revolução de Outubro de 1917: de um lado, o tempo da interrupção, anárquico, autônomo e crítico – que é o tempo da avat-garde –, do outro lado, a sincronização com una idéia de um tempo progressivo tal como foi decretado pelo Partido Comunista; este é o tempo das vanguardas, cuja contrapartida capitalista é a moda.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literatur und Rhetorik (800)
    Lizenz: Creative Commons - Namensnennung-Nicht kommerziell 3.0
  5. Witnessing: testimony of linguistic memory : the case of Victor Klemperer
    Erschienen: 31.12.2012

    In view of the tremendous success of Victor Klemperer's diaries testimoning his personal experience as a Jew in Nazi Germany, this article discusses the specific contribution of witness literature to the knowledge of history. During the Holocaust... mehr

     

    In view of the tremendous success of Victor Klemperer's diaries testimoning his personal experience as a Jew in Nazi Germany, this article discusses the specific contribution of witness literature to the knowledge of history. During the Holocaust period, in the face of death, true historical knowledge was essentially reduced to personal experience. Klemperer's clandestine journal exposes how the collective trauma affected everybody through the daily speech patterns, dictated by the Nazis' appropriation of the German language. In this memory of Alltagsgeschichte as a critical history of language can be seen the specific contribution of Literature of testimony. The function of Klemperers chronicle of 'Lingua Tertii Imperii' to develop the readers linguistic sensitivity, in order to enable them to reappropriate their language. Diante da enorme repercussção publica, nos anos 1990, dos diários de Victor Klempercr sobre sua experiência pessoal como judeu na Alemanha nazista, este artigo discute o tipo cspecífico de conhecimento da história proporcionado pela literatura de testemunho. Durante o período do holocausto, no confronto diário com a morte, o conhecimento hlstórico verdadeiro se aguçou nas experiências pessoais. O jornal clandestino de Klemperer expõe como o trauma coletivo afetou a todos por meio dos padrões cotidianos de fala, ditados pela apropriação nazista da língua alemã. Nessa memória da história do cotidiano enquanto história crítica da linguagem pode ser visto o valor específico da literatura de testemunho. A função da crônica de Klemperer da 'lingua Tertii Imperii' consiste em desenvolver nos leitores a sensibilidade

    lingüística, no sentido de poderem se reapropriar de sua língua.

     

    Hinweise zum Inhalt: kostenfrei
    Quelle: CompaRe
    Sprache: Englisch
    Medientyp: Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
    Format: Online
    DDC Klassifikation: Literaturen germanischer Sprachen; Deutsche Literatur (830)
    Lizenz: Creative Commons - Namensnennung-Nicht kommerziell 3.0